Red fox (Vulpes vulpes) as a synurbic species and its role in the spread of the Echinococcus multilocularis tapeworm

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Urbanization of the environment contributes to the degradation of many natural habitats of many plants and animals, which causes reduction of biodiversity. There are however certain species, adapting easily to both suburban and urban conditions. Red fox (Vulpes vulpes) is a good example, since it is increasingly noted not only in the natural habitats, such as fields or forests, but also in the direct vicinity of human residencies like farms, suburban areas or even large agglomerations. Fox is becoming a permanent feature of urban fauna, enriching the biodiversity. It is also a relevant epidemiological threat, constituting a zoonotic reservoir for many parasites which are important from veterinary, as well as from medical point of view, including tapeworm Echinococcus multilocularis which causes alveolar echinococcosis.