“The impact of globalisation on VET” is a study coordinated by IBE, conducted together with the consortium partner 3s Unternehmensberatung on behalf of the European Centre for the Development of Vocational Training, Cedefop. This research project was initiated on December 21, 2015 and is to operate for 22 months.
The focus of this study is on the responsiveness of national vocational education and training systems and qualifications to changing requirements of VET in Europe and across the world. This study will examine how globalisation influences the review and renewal of VET learning content and the way it is defined and described. It will also look at the synergies and competition between European and international sectoral standards and qualifications and national ones.
Empirical evidence will be gathered from a sample of fifteen selected countries:
and five economic sectors:
- Road Transport and Logistics
- Automotive manufacturing
- Information technology
- Paramedics and emergency medical (ambulance) technicians.
The project is structured into stages. The first is a review of existing evidence in the literature on the impact of globalisation on VET systems leading to a better understanding of the characteristics of national strategies, types/models, sectoral standards and qualifications on national and international levels, as well as through the identification of the involved actors; this will provide information for further qualitative research.
The second stage is an IDI study (in-depth interviews), which feeds into the country overview report and includes the following themes:
(a) review of national VET standards as a response to globalisation/internationalisation developments,
(b) the extent to which European and international standards are influencing national VET requirements and contents, and
(c) an assessment of the value added of European and international sectoral standards to VET systems.
The third stage will deepen the research results through fieldwork case studies. Finally, the results will be analysed and synthesised in order to formulate key findings and recommendations for national and international stakeholders (policymakers, providers, employers, international organisations) on ways of best combining national and international sectoral approaches to improve the quality and responsiveness of VET to globalisation.
The following research questions form the underlying basis for the implementation of this study.
1. To what extent do VET systems review their national standards as a direct response to globalisation/internationalisation?
(a) Is the review of VET standards as a response to globalisation/
internationalisation developments considered as important in the country? Why is it considered important or not important?
If it is important, is this expressed in the national strategy or other strategic documents related to VET or it is done in an implicit way?
(b) Are qualifications, programmes or curricula changed in response to globalisation/internationalisation? Is this review systematic? If YES how is this ensured?
(d) Who are the active stakeholders in the VET system to respond to global requirements at national, regional or local level? Does the involvement of different stakeholders change?
(e) How does the process of review of VET systems take place? Who is initiating the process who co-ordinates that process and what are its main stages? Is this process formalised? What are the channels and mechanisms of the influence on the VET system in response to globalisation/internationalisation?
(f) Which VET systems are more likely to respond to global changes? What are the reasons for this?
2. To what extent do European and international sectoral standards and qualifications influence VET requirements and content?
(a) Are international sectoral standards and qualifications incorporated into national qualifications? If yes, how it is done: i.e. a) as a national qualification; b) incorporated as one component of a national qualification; c) as an International Sectoral Qualification d) other …?
(b) Are training programmes and curricula (at national/regional/local level) adjusted to international sectoral standards or qualifications?
(c) Do international and national standards and qualifications compete (i.e. through value given by the labour market) with each other, function in parallel or are they complimentary?
(d) Which sectors make most use of European and international sectoral standards and qualifications to shape their VET requirements and contents?
3. Do European and international sectoral standards add value to national VET systems?
(a) Should European and international sectoral standards be reflected in national VET systems? If yes, what is the best way to do so?
(b) Are they accepted or likely to be accepted by national authorities and providers? Which arrangements must be in place to ensure that national authorities and providers accept the standards?
(c) Do they stimulate involvement of stakeholders to be involved in VET renewal in a more systemic way? How can this be improved?
(d) Do they help to increase trust and acceptance towards VET systems?